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Canterbury Tales Prologue

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Drawn up towards play around, your puppy has no hard cash upon staking or the family price reductions. Later discussion in this essay will find the Gest ideologically closer to the semi-romances than the early ballads. John — and the text, unlike the Gest — rejects this gentry motif, an apparent residue of the male-conflict romance that the ballad structurally parodies.

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As a result of his quasi-gentry error, Robin will endure imprisonment, a shameful fate that knights in romance did not suffer: the text parodies romance to create a different world of activity and value. Middle English romance can drift down in social scale and have comic combats, as in Sir Cleges, but the mix of wit, tricks, and cruelty bespeaks another class-hybrid medieval mode, the fabliau.

The fragments of other texts construct via structural parody a new formation. In his case parodic potential as a liberating critique of demotic vitality has persisted, from the Friar Tuck play through Thomas Love Peacock on to Mel Brooks, not to mention many a school concert and Christmas pantomime.

The point is that this is not simply self-parody in the Robin Hood tradition but a continuation of the original modes of serious parody by which a new socio-cultural consciousness is realized: the parodic process provides a literary mirror in which a new social formation can identify itself.

It will be rewarding to follow this approach and ask what forces operate in the process of forming via constructive parody the literary realization of the yeoman outlaw habitus of the early Robin Hood ballads? How does social culture arrive by the late fourteenth century at Robin Hood, a good outlaw resisting bad officials and urban threat and deplored by official culture, whether sheriffs or William Langland?


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This analysis of the fields that form the habitus should operate whether the origin is the French pastourelle Robin borne on the fragrant winds of the wine trade or some real medieval up-country English gangster. Neither of those was the same as the hero of the habitus which emerged in the early ballads and was so widely accepted and varied.

The economic field is clear: bad weather from the start of the fourteenth century, the fiscal drain of overseas war, massive population loss from disease, all making twentieth- and twenty-first-century socio-economic, even climatic, problems seem mild. The political field is naturally related, producing central and local regulation to restrain the dialectical effects of the economic field: the drive of the political field is to hold back the rise in the value of labour and counter the weakening of traditional bonds, and attitudes, of servility.

Parallel to these developments, in some ways deriving from them e. The ontological field, being personalized, is also sensualized: Robin swears by Mary, the affective arm of the holy family, and the physically positive self-realization of the ballads is strong — displaced as it is onto forest, summer, nature, or actualized in manly encounters and jesting. The darkening economic and political fields of mid-fourteenth-century England condition both the freedom and the support systems of the outlaws.

The link with the military field is clear in the fact that the outlaws are evidently paramilitaries, by implication straight from Agincourt to Barnsdale. The links with the democratic political field are visible in that this is not, as in feudal romance, a competitive quest for honour: it is an egalitarian form of self-expression, both, Bourdieu would be pleased to know, objective and subjective at once.

The two subjects realized in battle become objectively united in agreement Their relation is the opposite of the objective hostility between the outlaw band and officialdom, whether secular or monastic secular priests are not in this story, until the friar, a very demotic element of that domain, joins them in the late sixteenth century.

Inhabitants of the Habitus Texts and their contexts enable us to posit this habitus. But who experienced them? No: that is the point of the fiction and their sponsorship of it. Secondly, in its literary realization the effect of the habitus will be further mediated by the processes of art. The audience and the personnel of the texts will be dialectical: apparently opposite but in fact related. We find in literary ideology the resolution of the threats we most fear, via the values we would wish to be able to practise.


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With wit and weapon Robin humiliates random authority. Pilkington and Calle can relate to that as the estranged, self-aware, mutely aspirant practitioners of a new habitus which realizes forms of self-projected liberation in the context of nature, freedom, and unthreatened masculinity.

The Pastons also had a Robin Hood play that had a sheriff-fighting Robin Hood, the only surviving play where this is the case. The sub-Latinate title moves the text to the edge of respectability. In density of plot and reference, each fit is close to a parallel of one of the early ballads.

Clawson felt this was the Iliad of the outlaw mode and analysed its possible basis in as many as eight ballads, while others found it less confident, if often effective. Less enthusiastic was Holt, who felt the Gest to be clumsy and artificial Robin Hood, p. The Gest is divided into two halves, four fits in both. The other villain of the Gest emerges in this first half as Little John is lent by the knight to the sheriff having been lent to him by Robin: John is not the sturdy, even surly, yeoman of the early ballads.

John is an unruly servitor to the sheriff as he has been a true one to Robin, robbing his short-term master of food and money and tricking him into the forest: the sheriff is only released when he promises friendship to the outlaws. The second part immediately develops the sheriff-as-villain theme as he breaks his vow, ambushes the outlaws at an archery tournament, and, when driven off by their vigour, captures the knight.

OF THE role as an independent self-conscious yeoman. But after a short time, Robin has spent all this money, shooting before the king. They recur throughout the early texts and so seem authoritative, though the last appears misplaced at ; would seem a better break in terms of narrative, though this would create a fairly short last fit.

He gains grudging and authority-wielding permission from the king and leaves, never keeping his word to return in a week. He embraces his old life for many years, but is finally betrayed by a relative, a prioress, in league with a knight, and is bled to death.

At the start, yeoman outlaw and knight are combined in one strong if improbable alliance, even with elements of cross-identification.

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After providing a grand aristocratic-style dinner with swans, pheasants, and every kind of bird, as well as the standard venison, Robin and his men equip the knight fully with chivalric gear of mysterious origin. The knight, as Robin might, disguises himself as a poor man and tells a tricksterish fib to test the abbot; when he returns the money, a one-year promise-keeping familiar from romance, he not only brings Robin grandly elaborate bows and arrows but also stops to help a yeoman under threat.

The implausibility of such a castle, like the forest provenance of the chivalric gear and the sudden, enforced ending, operates as what Pierre Macherey sees as a strain feature in literature,46 showing the difficulty with which the text has to stretch to create its ideological meaning — here the quasi-union of yeoman outlaw and knight, eliding the social challenge of the early ballads.

It is to this outmoded paragon, who will, if not relieved of distress, go on crusade ll. Just as Galahad represents Christian knighthood and Lancelot represents courtly love knighthood, oppositive values that invest the Arthurian secular military world, so the knight bears new habitus-changing values into the text. The Gest is deploying further romance elements to parody, and redirect, the early outlaw ballads and their own parody of romance action.

This newly generated ideologically conservative alterity-healing habitus of yeoman-knight coalition now looks for royal approval. The comment brings a sense of late medieval modernity — we are in the fourteenth or fifteenth centuries when three Edwards flourished, not the medievalized history of later outlaw gentrification, linking Robin to Richard I.

The king finds his deer have been taken, a poaching motif that is implicit in the ballads when they eat venison but little developed in the forest-law context until the seventeenth century and especially later, when it appears to be a potent code for enclosure.

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Here it merely initiates royal involvement. Here too the cycle of political negotiation appears complete, and the language suggests that. The Arthurian motifs and the knightly metonymy are now realized as structural: the yeoman alterity has departed. Or has it? Conclusion and Continuation A re-formation of a habitus to respond to a different field, or to exclude, as seems here the case, its earlier realization of one, does not of its own force delete that palimpsestic habitus: as Bourdieu explains, Balzac can still be read within Flaubert, and both will be varied and overlaid in Zola.

The doxa the text constructs is always under threat of incredibility. This indicates that Robin is alienated from himself and his yeoman habitus in the painful reality of the courtly world, for all its incorporational ideology. The king is suspicious, and authoritarian, but Robin ignores him; his men reappear as if he never left outlaw life; alterity starts up again. And why should it not? It was after all only the green-disguised pageantry of the king and Robin, with the knight as an intermediary in tow, that signified class peace and the absence of violent alterity.

The townsfolk are only excitable versions of the true old knight. Like so much in the Gest, its last words are manipulative invention, intervention. The knight was only temporarily a poor man; the concept of patronizing charity meshes with the gentrification of Robin Hood that this powerful text has done so much to presage in its mode and in its underlying structure and language. Scholars and critics of the Gest have in general not paid enough attention to its detail, or perhaps have not been equipped with tools strong enough to crack the firm cortex of its ideology to find the withered kernel of social recuperation.

This essay started by noting how the Gest has been surprisingly ineffective in its impact of the tradition. Not only does Robin Hood outside the Gest and one later ballad always live — it is notorious that the technically excellent film Robin and Marian is the only one to have lost money, apparently because it ends with the moving deaths of the outlaw and Marian — but he lives as an essentially tricksterish outlaw figure, escaping the alliance with knight and king that the author of the Gest tries to impose.

From Peacock on Robin may usually be a lord but his enemy is always a knight; the king is always only a figurehead, and Robin finally escapes his authority in some way. His list of heroes scored on his own international hero-ratings basis is on pp.