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This is the third of Jonathan Hart's studies of colonialism, with a study of the colonial adventures of Portugal, Spain, England and ultimately the United States, and the emergence of what we call the New World. This new study of expanding nations and the cultures they encountered and established overseas ranges from 15th century Portugal to the United States at the close of the 19th century. This study is impressive also for its overview of the complex entanglement of commerce and religion, literature and politics, innocence and corruption.
Janszoon then crossed the eastern end of the Arafura Sea , without seeing the Torres Strait , into the Gulf of Carpentaria. On February 26, , he made landfall at the Pennefather River on the western shore of Cape York in Queensland, near the modern town of Weipa. This is the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent. Janszoon proceeded to chart some kilometres miles of the coastline, which he thought was a southerly extension of New Guinea. In — Abel Tasman , also a Dutch explorer and merchant in the service of the VOC, circumnavigated New Holland proving that Australia was not part of the mythical southern continent.
He was the first known European expedition to reach the islands of Van Diemen's Land now Tasmania and New Zealand and to sight the Fiji islands, which he did in Tasman, his navigator Visscher, and his merchant Gilsemans also mapped substantial portions of Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands. In the midth century the Tsardom of Russia conquered the Tatar khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan , thus annexing the entire Volga Region and opening the way to the Ural Mountains.
The colonization of the new easternmost lands of Russia and further onslaught eastward was led by the rich merchants Stroganovs. Tsar Ivan IV granted vast estates near the Urals as well as tax privileges to Anikey Stroganov , who organized large scale migration to these lands.
Stroganovs developed farming, hunting, saltworks, fishing, and ore mining on the Urals and established trade with Siberian tribes. By Stroganovs and Yermak came up with the idea of the military expedition to Siberia, in order to fight Kuchum in his own land. In Yermak began his voyage into the depths of Siberia. After a few victories over the khan's army, Yermak's people defeated the main forces of Kuchum on Irtysh River in a 3-day Battle of Chuvash Cape in The remains of the khan's army retreated to the steppes , and thus Yermak captured the Siberia Khanate , including its capital Qashliq near modern Tobolsk.
Kuchum still was strong and suddenly attacked Yermak in in the dead of night, killing most of his people. Yermak was wounded and tried to swim across the Wagay River Irtysh 's tributary , but drowned under the weight of his own chain mail. The Cossacks had to withdraw from Siberia completely, but thanks to Yermak's having explored all the main river routes in West Siberia, Russians successfully reclaimed all his conquests just several years later.
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In the early 17th century the eastward movement of Russians was slowed by the internal problems in the country during the Time of Troubles. However, very soon the exploration and colonization of the huge territories of Siberia was resumed, led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory. These were Pomors from the Russian North , who already had been making fur trade with Mangazeya in the north of the Western Siberia for quite a long time.
In the settlement of Turukhansk was founded on the northern Yenisei River , near the mouth of Lower Tunguska , and in Yeniseysky ostrog was founded on the mid-Yenisei at the mouth of the Upper Tunguska. Between and a group of fur hunters led by Demid Pyanda left Turukhansk and explored some 1, miles 2, kilometres of the Lower Tunguska, wintering in the proximity of the Vilyuy and Lena rivers. According to later legendary accounts folktales collected a century after the fact , Pyanda discovered the Lena River.
Assessing the Success of Portuguese and Spanish Exploration and Colonization
He allegedly explored some 1, miles 2, kilometres of its length, reaching as far as central Yakutia. He returned up the Lena until it became too rocky and shallow, and portaged to the Angara River. In this way, Pyanda may have become the first Russian to meet Yakuts and Buryats. He built new boats and explored some miles 1, kilometres of the Angara, finally reaching Yeniseysk and discovering that the Angara a Buryat name and Upper Tunguska Verkhnyaya Tunguska, as initially known by Russians are one and the same river. In Pyotr Beketov was appointed Yenisei voevoda in Siberia.
He successfully carried out the voyage to collect taxes from Zabaykalye Buryats, becoming the first Russian to step in Buryatia. He founded the first Russian settlement there, Rybinsky ostrog. Beketov was sent to the Lena River in , where in he founded Yakutsk and sent his Cossacks to explore the Aldan and farther down the Lena, to found new fortresses, and to collect taxes. Yakutsk soon turned into a major starting point for further Russian expeditions eastward, southward and northward. Maksim Perfilyev , who earlier had been one of the founders of Yeniseysk, founded Bratsky ostrog on the Angara in , and in he became the first Russian to step into Transbaikalia , travelling there from Yakutsk.
Later Ivanov made the first chart and description of Baikal. In a group of explorers led by Ivan Moskvitin became the first Russians to reach the Pacific Ocean and to discover the Sea of Okhotsk , having built a winter camp on its shore at the Ulya River mouth. The Cossacks learned from the locals about the large Amur River far to the south. In they apparently sailed south, explored the south-eastern shores of the Okhotsk Sea, perhaps reaching the mouth of the Amur River and possibly discovering the Shantar Islands on their way back.
After wintering, in Poyarkov pushed down the Zeya and became the first Russian to reach the Amur River.
Mercantilism and Great Britain Colonies
He sailed down the Amur and finally discovered the mouth of that great river from land. Since his Cossacks provoked the enmity of the locals behind, Poyarkov chose a different way back. They built boats and in sailed along the Sea of Okhotsk coast to the Ulya River and spent the next winter in the huts that had been built by Ivan Moskvitin six years earlier. In they returned to Yakutsk. A merchant named Fedot Alekseyev Popov organized a further expedition eastward, and Semyon Dezhnyov became a captain of one of the kochi.
In they sailed from Srednekolymsk down to the Arctic and after some time they rounded Cape Dezhnyov , thus becoming the first explorers to pass through the Bering Strait and to discover Chukotka and the Bering Sea. All their kochi and most of their men including Popov himself were lost in storms and clashes with the natives. A small group led by Dezhnyov reached the mouth of the Anadyr River and sailed up it in , having built new boats from the wreckage. They founded Anadyrsk and were stranded there, until Stadukhin found them, coming from Kolyma by land. He also may have explored the western shores of Kamchatka.
This time he was met with armed resistance. He built winter quarters at Albazin , then sailed down Amur and found Achansk, which preceded the present-day Khabarovsk , defeating or evading large armies of Daurian Manchu Chinese and Koreans on his way. He charted the Amur in his Draft of the Amur river.
1. The Global Reach of Spanish American Medicinal Plants
In he sailed from Anadyr Bay to Cape Dezhnyov. Atop his earlier pioneering charts, Ivanov is credited with creation of the early map of Chukotka and Bering Strait , which was the first to show on paper very schematically the yet undiscovered Wrangel Island , both Diomede Islands and Alaska, based on the data collected from the natives of Chukotka.
- Bibliographic Information.
- VTLS Chameleon iPortal حدث خطأ في الاتصال.
- European Colonialism from Portuguese Expansion to the Spanish-American War.
- European Colonialism | Essential Humanities.
- Learning to Curse: Essays in Early Modern Culture (Routledge Classics).
- Undergraduate Research in the Sciences: Engaging Students in Real Science.
So, by the midth century, Russians established the borders of their country close to modern ones, and explored almost the whole of Siberia, except the eastern Kamchatka and some regions north of the Arctic Circle. The conquest of Kamchatka later would be achieved in the early s by Vladimir Atlasov , while the discovery of the Arctic coastline and Alaska would be completed by the Great Northern Expedition in — European overseas expansion led to the contact between the Old and New Worlds producing the Columbian Exchange ,  named after Columbus.
It started the global silver trade from the 16th to 18th centuries and led to direct European involvement the Chinese porcelain trade. It involved the transfer of goods unique to one hemisphere to another. Europeans brought cattle, horses, and sheep to the New World, and from the New World Europeans received tobacco, potatoes and maize.
Other items becoming important in global trade were the sugarcane and cotton crops of the Americas, and the gold and silver brought from the Americas not only to Europe but elsewhere in the Old World. The new trans-oceanic links and their domination by the European powers led to the Age of Imperialism , where European colonial powers came to control most of the planet. The European appetite for trade, commodities, empire and slaves greatly affected many other areas of the world. Spain participated in the destruction of aggressive empires in the Americas, only to substitute its own, and forcibly replaced the original religions.
The pattern of territorial aggression was repeated by other European empires, most notably the Dutch, Russian, French and British. Christianity replaced older "pagan" rituals, as were new languages, political and sexual cultures, and in some areas like North America, Australia, New Zealand and Argentina , the indigenous peoples were abused and driven off most of their lands, being reduced to small, dependent minorities. Similarly, in coastal Africa, local states supplied the appetite of European slave traders , changing the complexion of coastal African states and fundamentally altering the nature of African slavery , causing impacts on societies and economies deep inland.
See Atlantic slave trade. Aboriginal peoples were living in North America at this time and still do today. There were many conflicts between Europeans and Natives. The Europeans had many advantages over the natives. See Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas. Maize and manioc were introduced into Africa in the 16th century by the Portuguese.
Crosby speculated that increased production of maize, manioc, and other New World crops led to heavier concentrations of population in the areas from which slavers captured their victims. In the global silver trade from the 16th to 18th centuries , the Ming Dynasty was stimulated by trade with the Portuguese , Spanish , and Dutch. Although global, much of that silver ended up in the hands of the Chinese and China dominated silver imports. A large populace near the Lower Yangzte averaged a hundreds of taels of silver per household in the late 16th century.
In the late 16th and early 17th century, Japan was also exporting heavily into China and the foreign trade at large. During the last decades of the Ming the flow of silver into China was greatly diminished, thereby undermining state revenues and indeed the entire Ming economy. This damage to the economy was compounded by the effects on agriculture of the incipient Little Ice Age , natural calamities, crop failure, and sudden epidemics. The ensuing breakdown of authority and people's livelihoods allowed rebel leaders such as Li Zicheng to challenge Ming authority.
New crops that had come to Asia from the Americas via the Spanish colonizers in the 16th century contributed to the Asia's population growth.
This included sweet potatoes , maize , and peanuts, foods that could be cultivated in lands where traditional Chinese staple crops—wheat, millet, and rice—could not grow, hence facilitating a rise in the population of China. The arrival of the Portuguese to Japan in initiated the Nanban trade period , with the Japanese adopting several technologies and cultural practices, like the arquebus , European-style cuirasses, European ships, Christianity, decorative art, and language.
After the Chinese had banned direct trade by Chinese merchants with Japan, the Portuguese filled this commercial vacuum as intermediaries between China and Japan.