In , he began to create a new "apolitical" party, the Patriotic Union UP , which was formally organized the following year. Primo de Rivera liked to claim that members of the UP were above the squabbling and corruption of petty politics, that they placed the nation's interests above their own. He thought it would bring ideal democracy to Spain by representing true public opinion.
But the UP quite obviously was a political party, despite the dictator's naive protestations. Furthermore, it failed to attract enthusiastic support or even many members. On December 3, , he moved to restore legitimate government by dismissing the military Directory and replacing it with civilians.
Making Spaniards by Quiroga, Alejandro, Dr (ebook)
Still, the constitution remained suspended, and criticisms of the regime grew. To demonstrate his public support, Primo de Rivera ordered the UP to conduct a plebiscite in September. Voters could endorse the regime or abstain. About a third of those able to vote declined to go to the polls. Nevertheless, buoyed by his victory, Primo de Rivera decided to create an entirely new political system. On 10 October , with the king in attendance, he opened a National Assembly. Although they met in the Cortes chamber, members of the regime-appointed assembly could only advise Primo de Rivera.
They had no legislative power. In , following guidance from the dictator, the assembly finally produced a new constitution. Among its provisions, it gave women the vote because Primo de Rivera believed their political views less susceptible to political radicalism.
He intended to have the nation accept the new constitution in another plebiscite, to be held in As Spaniards tired of the dictatorship, the economic boom ended. The value of the peseta fell against foreign currencies, brought a bad harvest, and Spain's imports far outstripped the worth of its exports.
Conservative critics blamed rising inflation on the government's spending for public works projects. Although no one recognized it at the time, the final months of the year brought the international economic slump which turned into the great depression of the s.
When Primo de Rivera lost the support of the king and the armed forces, his dictatorship was doomed. The Spanish military had never unanimously backed his seizure of power, although it had tolerated his rule. But when Primo de Rivera began to inject politics into promotions for the artillery corps, it provoked hostility and opposition. Troubled by the regime's failure to legitimize itself or to solve the country's woes, the king also began to draw away.
Alfonso, who had sponsored the establishment of Madrid's University City, watched with dismay as the country's students took to the streets to protest the dictatorship and the king's support for it. A clandestine pamphlet portrayed Alfonso as Primo de Rivera's dancing partner. Yet the king did not have to remove Primo de Rivera.
On 26 January , the dictator asked the military leaders if he still had their support. Their lukewarm responses, and his recognition that the king no longer backed him, persuaded him to resign two days later. Primo de Rivera retired to Paris, where he died from fever and diabetes on 16 March In the early s, as most of the western world, Spain fell into economic and political chaos. But the monarch had discredited himself by siding with the dictatorship. Social revolution fermented in Catalonia. The act ushered in the Second Republic.
The Nationalists led by Francisco Franco won the Civil War and established a far more authoritarian regime. By that time, many Spaniards regarded Primo de Rivera's relatively mild regime and its economic optimism with greater fondness. Sign In Don't have an account? Contents [ show ]. Categories :.
Making Spaniards: Primo de Rivera and the Nationalization of the Masses, 1923-30
Cancel Save. Church of La Merced, Jerez de la Frontera. Captain General. Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand. Cover of Time Magazine 8 June Blinkhorn, London Cabrera M. Callahan W.
Carnero Arbat T. Darde, T.
Carnero Arbat, Madrid Alternative Routes to Nationalist Mobilisation , London CuencaToribio J. Lannon, P. Preston, Oxford Regime Change and Ministerial Recruitment — , eds. Tavares de Almeida, A. Costa Pinto, N. Bermeo, London Smith, London Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access.
Shop by category
Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Volume 15 , Issue 1 January Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure.