Edited by A. Evans and Stanley E. Porter Downers Grove, , Edited by Craig A. The gods are the first and most important friends.
Wherefore it is becoming for a wife to worship and to know only the gods that her husband believes in, and to shut the front door tight upon all queer rituals and outlandish superstitions. For with no good do stealthy and secret rites performed by a woman find any favor.
Reflections & Homilies
Shameful worship practices could extend beyond the Greco-Roman home to the local and national level. The Early Followers of Jesus Regarding the formation of a historical understanding of family among the early followers of Jesus, we must be mindful of the ongoing challenge posed by desiderata and the bias in studying our primary and secondary sources. Acknowledging this problem, Halvor Moxnes argues that we must pay attention to not just the androcentricity of the New Testament world, but also the patriarch-ideological framework of family and household codes.
Joel B. The expectation went beyond marriage and family. An example of such an expectation outside of the family is seen in the context of political exile in Daniel 3. Edited by Halvor Moxnes London: Routledge, , What impact did nascent Christianity have on family among the early followers of Jesus? The way of Jesus is the way of rejection, suffering and death; a pattern to be the expectation of followers of Jesus as well Mark ; ; ; ; People had to decide between faith in Jesus or submission to Jewish family expectations. Those who decided to follow Jesus formed fictive bonds among themselves that essentially and functionally replaced traditional familial bonds.
Edited by Joel B.
UBC Theses and Dissertations
Green, Scot McKnight, and I. Not only were relationships familial, but also constituted the environment of the church. Churches met in homes. Church was, and is, about family and fictive kinship. Horsley, Ibid. For example, if historical records indicate males exclusively carried out the roles of property owners, money managers and the making and enforcing of laws, it is obvious that males carry significant power and influence. When this is cast against females who were exclusively assigned the roles of child-bearing and the doing of all manner of household tasks with no right or authority to speak to males, we as contemporary western persons, would consider this society to be not only androcentric but abusive and repressive of females as well.
Therefore, the observing and defining of the ways in which people relate to other people reveals deeply set values, emotions, convictions, and beliefs, etc.
How a male treats a female or vice versa, may indicate status, religious conviction, power, and importance. In like manner, how adults treat children may indicate similar values. This also applies to relationships beyond the family such as kinship groups, tribes, and competing nations. By studying cultural orthopraxy, it is possible to discover descriptions of the ways people acted and specifically, the ways they treated each other. These descriptions do not reveal the full context of why these people were motivated to act the way they did.
However, these descriptions will provided at least a more precise view of the social values captured in the picture frame of history. Not unlike epic stories, orthopraxy points to values, convictions, doctrines, etc. How males and females are treated, honored, or shamed reveals much about their culture. Hanson and Douglas E.
MARY IN THE BIBLE
Cheryl Exum Sheffield Academic Press, , Your people shall be my people, and your God, my God. Thus may the Lord do to me, and worse, if anything but death parts you and me.
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Longenecker indicates patterns of authority and submission varied according to the social setting. In the public sphere, males were in authority. In the private sphere of the home was the domain of the wife, the place where she had considerable authority cf. Even compassion is illustrated in Psalm by the image of a compassionate father. At these locations, a woman had unique obligations and jurisdiction.
See John 4 and the story of the Samaritan woman at the well. The assumption of the domestic sphere of an Israeli woman is seen in the Mishnah were legal categories reveal marriage, family and cleanliness rulings. Matthews, Ibid.
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The following terms may be summarized as follows: Nashim: The collection of laws pertaining to women or wives. The following are subsections of the Nashim. A father or husband could intervene and superimpose his authority on all things domestic. An example of this type of authority is found in Numbers , where we see a father or husband had authority to cancel a vow made by a wife or daughter. See also Scott, Jr. The works are a compendium of legal opinions, sayings and stories by and about the rabbis of the first five centuries of the Christian era.
The Talmuds are arranged as commentaries on the Mishnah.
The Mishnah is a collection of legal opinions foundational to rabbinic Judaism and completed in c. See Goodman, Martin D. Ilan notes in the halakhah, women are often grouped together with others who were not legal independent entities, but they were compared principally with slaves, cf. His works are the principal source for the history of the Jews from the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes B. Translated by William Whiston Peabody: Hendrickson, , ix.
However, divorce was the legal workaround for an unwanted or unproductive wife. It includes the husband's guarantee to pay a certain sum in the event of divorce, and inheritance rights obligatory upon his heirs in case he dies before his wife. From our contemporary worldview the answer is yes. However, when one compares the treatment of women and children in other ancient Near Eastern cultures, it becomes evident that Israel and her treatment of women is not as abusive as one may think.
For example, consider the practices of the cult of Molech and the offering of child sacrifices. In other words, it is anachronistic i. When in fact, this is not necessarily the case at all. Spoken plainly, a wife was counted along with the cattle. Jeffers and he confirmed my essential findings i.
We may conclude, however, that a woman who produced no males but only females would be considered of lesser status but not necessarily shamed. Liminal women were not just out of the house but were without a household, [i. They were legally homeless, without any social, political, or economic status in the village Sasson ; Cohen ; Turner In doing so, he would indicate to her that it was safe and culturally appropriate for her to approach the well.
Social World of Ancient Israel, B. Peabody: Hendrickson, , Cohick, Ibid. Kraemer defines Midrash halakha as a tannaitic exegesis of the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The word tannaitic refers to the Tanna or Palestinian teachers of Judaism during the first two centuries A. This is based on Eve, the female who led the male in deception. The same is true concerning Challah leaven : Adam was the pure Challah of the world… and Eve was the cause of his death; therefore has she been given the Challah precept. And concerning the lighting of [Sabbath] lamp: Adam was the light of the world…and Eve was the cause of his death; therefore has she been given the precept about lighting the [Sabbath] lamp.
Shabbat 2, 5b, 34; Genesis Rabbah , as cited by Baskin, Judith. You have brought me very low, and you are among those who trouble me; for I have given my word to the Lord, and I cannot take it back. See also Alphabet of Ben Sira, as a resource on the tradition of Lilith, which presents her as a more assertive female than that of the domesticated Eve. The work attacks and refutes the claims of Christianity OCD, MacDonald, , Ibid.
Edited by David M. Scholer Peabody: Hendrickson, , See treatment of this text by Sharon H. It is worth noting that Genesis echoes the Genesis 3 story. Abraham listens to the voice of his wife and is thereby compromises the will of YHWH. The Greco-Roman World It should come as no surprise that gender roles were well-defined in the honor-shame culture of the Greco-Roman world. Males were granted superior social roles and honor status over females.